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Thursday 1 June 2023 Dublin: 16°C
Rebecca Blackwell/AP/Press Association Images Malam Bacai Sanha listens during a session of the 17th African Union Summit at the Sipopo Conference Center, outside Malabo, Equatorial Guinea in June.
# Guinea-Bissau
President of Guinea-Bissau dies - report
Malam Bacai Sanha had been frequently hospitalised abroad in his two years as president. There are no immediate details on the cause of his death.

PRESIDENT MALAM BACAI Sanha, who took power of this tiny West African nation about two years ago after the previous leader was assassinated, died today.

No immediate cause was given but the 64-year-old president had been frequently hospitalised abroad.

An official at Guinea-Bissau’s embassy in Paris, Luis Mendes, said Sanha died this morning at the Val de Grace hospital. Sanha has been hospitalised in France “for about a month” for an unspecified ailment, Mendes said.

The head of the National Assembly, Raimundo Pereira, is again expected to take over until new elections can be organised. He had been named interim head of state until elections were organised, which Sanha won.

Since independence from Portugal in 1974, the nation has been wracked by coups and has become one of the main transit points for drug traffickers ferrying cocaine to Europe.

Bright spot

Sanha won the 2009 presidential elections in the tiny nation of 1.6 million in a peaceful transition of power that marked a rare bright spot for Guinea-Bissau.

Sanha, though, became less known for what he did as president than for his frequent hospitalisations abroad, which were always described by aides as routine checkups.

In August 2009, he spent nearly three weeks hospitalised in Dakar, the capital of neighboring Senegal, where medical facilities are better equipped than in tiny Bissau.

A diplomat said at the time that the president had become a regular visitor in Dakar, arriving on a special flight each time his blood sugar was out of balance. And a veteran observer with close ties to the president’s entourage described the illness as “advanced diabetes” combined with a hemoglobin problem.

Sanha began his political career as the head of the youth wing of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, or PAIGC — the body that fought for the country’s independence from Portugal in 1974.

He went on to become a member of its executive committee, and then served as a governor of a province.

He was thrown to the fore after the March 2009 assassination of President Joao Bernardo “Nino” Vieira who was gunned down inside his home. Pereira became interim head of state until elections were organised, which Sanha won.

Drug trafficking

The circumstances of Vieira’s death have never been fully illuminated, but many speculated that his killing was related to issues surrounding drug trafficking.

In recent years, Guinea-Bissau has become a hub for drug smuggling. Cocaine flown in from South America to the archipelago of islands that dot the country’s coastline.

The drugs are then moved to Europe by boats and by mules who ingest the drugs and attempt to carry them north on commercial flights. Sanha had pledged to combat the flow of narcotics.

“Drug trafficking must end in this country,” he told a meeting of top military officials in July.

Nevertheless, he appointed Jose Americo Bubo Na Tchuto, labeled by the US Treasury Department as a drug kingpin, to head the Navy in early October. “You must prove to those who accuse you of being steeped in illicit activities that what they say does not correspond to the truth,” Sanha said at Na Tchuto’s induction ceremony.

Carlos Vamain, a political analyst and former justice minister, called Sanha’s presidency difficult and complex.

“Difficult in the context of narco-trafficking and also the unchanging socio-economic problems of the country,” Vamain said. “His presidency did not bring the results people had hoped.”