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Key to healthy pregnancy weight gain? Low-GI foods

According to a study done by Dublin scientists and the National Maternity Hospital, women who changed to a low-GI diet gained less weight while pregnant.

Image: David Jones/PA Wire/Press Association Images

WOMEN WHO SWITCH to a low-GI diet during pregnancy can reduce their chances of excessive weight gain by up to 20 per cent, according to a new Irish study.

According to the findings published in the British Medical Journal, women who maintain their usual diet during pregnancy have a 48 per cent chance of excessive weight gain, but the likelihood can be reduced to 38 per cent by switching to a low GI diet.

The study was led by scientists from University College Dublin and the National Maternity Hospital, Ireland. It recorded an average weight gain of 13.7kg among women who remained on their usual diet during their pregnancy, against an average weight gain of 12.2kg among women who changed to a low GI diet.

Fionnuala McAuliffe, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, and the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, said:

Our findings show that women who switch to a low GI diet during pregnancy are 20 per cent less likely to experience excessive weight gain. This type of excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with an increased need for delivery by Caesarean section, a higher likelihood of post pregnancy weight retention, and a higher predisposition to obesity in later life.

The study funded by the Health Research Board in Ireland involved over 800 mums-to-be who attended the National Maternity Hospital in Dublin over several years.

Low-GI diet

For the study, 400 of the pregnant women were selected to switch to a low GI diet. They were encouraged to eat wholegrains, brown bread, and brown rice instead of high GI foods like white rice, white bread, and cornflakes. They were not encouraged to reduce their calorie intake.

They also attended an education session early in pregnancy where they were introduced to general healthy eating guidelines for pregnancy and the glycaemic index (GI) index of foods. After the session, they were given information booklets on low GI foods which included recipes.

These 400 women met with the dietician again at 28 weeks and 34 weeks of their pregnancy to reinforce the messages about the benefits of a low GI diet and to answer any questions.

The remaining 400 pregnant women continued with their usual diet throughout their pregnancy.

Weighed

All 800 women were weighed and had their body mass index calculated at their first antenatal session, and this was repeated at 28 weeks of pregnancy, where their blood glucose was also measured.

The measurements were repeated again at 34 and 40 weeks of pregnancy.

Professor McAuliffe said that the women on the low-GI diet gained less weight:

Overall the 400 women on the low GI diet during their pregnancy reported that the diet was easy to follow and to shop for, and 80 per cent said that they followed the diet all or most of the time.

Read: More than a quarter of births in Ireland are to women aged 35 and over>

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